Intel never quite reached 4GHz with the Pentium 4. Despite being on a dedicated quest for gigahertz the company stopped short. Within a year the clock (no pun intended) was reset and we were all running Core 2
Duos at under 3GHz. With each subsequent generation Intel inched those clock speeds higher, but preferred to gain performance through efficiency rather than frequency.
Today, Intel quietly finishes what it started nearly a decade ago.
When running a single threaded application, the Core i7-2600K will power gate three of its four cores and turbo the fourth core as high
as 3.8GHz. Even with two cores active, the 32nm chip can run them both up to 3.7GHz. The only thing keeping us from 4GHz is a lack of competition to be honest. Relying on single-click motherboard auto-overclocking alone, the 2600K is easily at 4.4GHz. For those of you who want more, 4.6-4.8GHz is within reason. All on air, without any exotic cooling.
Unlike Lynnfield, Sandy Bridge isn’t just about turbo (although Sandy Bridge’s turbo modes are quite awesome). Architecturally it’s the biggest change we’ve seen since Conroe, although looking at a high level block diagram you wouldn’t be able to tell. Architecture width hasn’t changed, but internally SNB features a complete redesign of the Out of Order execution engine, a more efficient front end (courtesy of the decoded µop cache) and a very high bandwidth ring bus. The L3 cache is also lower and the memory controller is much faster. I’ve gone through the architectural improvements in detail here. The end result is better performance all around. For the same money as you would’ve spent last year, you can expect anywhere from 10-50% more performance in existing applications and games from Sandy Bridge.
Bridge to the Future
Performance increased and efficient power consumption. Sandy Bridge is the most recent proof of the dominance of Intel in the processor world. Previously, the processor is called Gesher, which in Hebrew
means the bridge. But the name “Gesher” becomes problematic because it never used political party that failed in Israel. Intel also racked his brain and eventually decides the name of Sandy Bridge. These names
do not refer to a place, but still reflects the vision and mission through the Sandy Bridge Intel: a bridge to a new era of processor.
What is Sandy Bridge
Naturally, if Intel’s new microarchitecture wants to associate them with the name of the bridge. The reason, Sandy Bridge is the biggest change since the era of Intel Pentium 4, which qualifies as a bridge to the new world.
Update Sandy Bridge is most important is to realize the concept of fusion processor, the processor that brings together all the components into a piece of the processor. It is arguably the culmination of a strategy “to move all the supporting components of the northbridge to the processor” that made Intel since 2 years ago.
On the generation of Bloomfield processors, they include memory controller. In Lynnfield, turn to PCI-E controller. In the era of Clarkdale, turns the onboard graphics chip is integrated into the processor. But some are actually still a separate component in some silicon-only “knitted” course into a processor. Well, that’s what Intel Destroy in Sandy Bridge. All the components in the Sandy Bridge processor are in a piece of silicon, there is no separate again. You may ask why Intel painstakingly assembled all the components into the
processor. The answer is because the system works more quickly and efficiently thanks to the integrated system like this. Similar analogy as an independent city as housing, offices, hospitals, and all means of life are in one area. With only the “road” for a while, all the data and instructions are up to the processing unit inside the processor.
Performance for every budget
One of the cool things about Sandy Bridge is how well the platform scales up and down the price and performance stack. One can find Sandy Bridge motherboards south of $100, and enthusiasts can find three-way GPU, hardcore overclocking motherboards for over $300 and it’s pretty exciting to see this kind of performance out of a $300 processor. A word to overclockers you’ll need to make sure you’re buying special
“K” SKUs currently the 2500K and the 2600K, in order to get the unlocked features necessary to facilitate overclocking.
Here’s the content of a piece of Sandy Bridge processors. There are 995 million transistors on a piece of silicon measuring 216mm2, consisting of the processor core, graphics chip, L3 cache, and System Agent. In the Sandy Bridge, a trip data even more quickly because all units are in one of silicon. Moreover, Intel makes interconnection alias new road that connects all the components, ranging from the processor chip, graphics chip, until the cache. Interconnection-called Ring Bus is like the road toll for the trip data to the entire unit
because it has a speed of up to 384 GB / s with minimal latency.
Another advantage of the system is to decrease power consumption and core size, especially with the fabrication of 32 nm is used Sandy Bridge. If calculated, with a four-core Sandy Bridge have 995 million
transistors, but the die size of only 216 mm2. Compare with its predecessor, Lynnfield, which “only” has 296 million transistors, but has a die size of 296 mm2. The components in the silicon itself Sandy Bridge is approximately the same as Nehalem.
The first course core processors. Sandy Bridge On this first generation, the number of core number 2 and 4, followed by the next generations who have 6 and 8 core. Each core has a L2 cache of 256 KB.
Working L2 cache assisted level 3 cache (L3 cache) that is used along with the size varied between 3-8 MB (depending on the segmentation).
While PCI Express, DMI, and the memory controller and display interface are gathered in one area called the System Agent. But integration is also leaving a negative effect. In the Nehalem era, the clock generator (which regulates the working frequency components) is individual. That is, there is a clock generator for each component, whether it is the processor, memory, USB, SATA, and other components on the motherboard. So we can overclock by adjusting the frequency base clock (Bclk) of each component. In Sandy Bridge, only one clock generator and set the frequency at 100 MHz for all components. As a result, increase the frequency of the processor will raise the memory frequency, SATA, and other components. This makes overclocking through
Bclk becomes very difficult. The increase in numbers 5-6 MHz alone will make the USB and SATA components to strike work.
Microarchitecture is the smallest system of a processor. If the processor is the car, the engine microarchitecture. From the “machine” the same microarchitecture, could attend the processor to the
processor desktop, notebook, until the server. Sandy Bridge itself is the period of the strategy Tock tick-Tock Intel. If you do not already know, Tick-Tock is the recently released Intel to develop in a
patterned microarsitecture. Tick is when Intel shrinks fabrication.
Tock is when Intel makes new microarchitecture.
At each change, Intel could release 1 to 3 families of processors which are usually characterized by a certain code name.
Intel has long been preparing for Sandy Bridge, so it looks very ready at the beginning of January and then released their newest line of processors. In total there are 29 processors that they spend, which is divided in the desktop segment (14 pieces) and notebooks (15 pieces).
For Sandy Bridge version of the desktop, Intel said prices ranged between U.S. $ 100-300. That is, the segment occupied by this new processor is down to the middle. The top segment is still occupied by
the socket LGA1366 processor (e.g. Core i7-975), and probably be replaced next year. The names themselves still follow the Core system i3/i5 / i7. The difference, Sandy Bridge processors using 4-digit
system, whiles the previous 3 digits. The first number starting from number 2, because Intel’s Sandy Bridge regarded as second-generation Nehalem processors. In addition, there is also a suffix of K, T, and S.
The added K indicates multiplier-free facilities (not locked). While the suffix T and S processor has a TDP of smaller, at 65 Watt (T series) and 45 Watt (series S).
Just to remind, the processor Sandy Bridge “plain” and K has a TDP of 95 Watt. TDP is a small show T and S series is aimed at integrated systems like Home Theater PC, and more are sold to PC makers. So for the retail segment, the choice of 8 desktop processor as you can see in table Choice Complete.
As the handle easily, Sandy Bridge type i3 has 2 core, while for Core i5 and i7 has 4 core. But keep in mind that the I5 series Lynnfield also have a 2 core, so make sure you choose the i5 Core processor with 4 digits if you want to try out Sandy Bridge. Take for example the VT-x features available on Core i5-2400 but not in the I5-2300.
Imagine: his name is similar, but different features in it. So if you need one of these features, let you check in ark.intel.com to ensure its existence.
Turbo Boost 2.0
Since the era of the Nehalem processors, Intel has introduced the Turbo Boost feature. Just to remind, Turbo Boost is the ability of processors to increase speed above the standard if it detects the processor TDP and heat as a whole is still below the maximum threshold. It usually occurs when the processor runs a single-threading applications (like games)-when only one or two core work. Because the other core breaks, which means its unused quota, the processor automatically increases the speed of the core that is at work. At the Sandy Bridge processor, Intel Turbo Boost implements a more aggressive approach. Intel processors are increasingly realizing that the heat does not happen instantly, but gradually until it reaches the maximum limit.
Well, the lag time was used Turbo Boost 2.0 is to spur the top of my voice processor, even above the safe limit of TDP. It was only when the processor heat approaching the maximum limit, TDP lowered to safe
levels. Pause it was brief, only about 25 seconds, but effective way to handle the process with a high workload such as the process of loading Photoshop. Turbo Boost 2.0 also takes advantage of the scheme
of the silicon in the Sandy Bridge. Now, the ration power and heat that is not used can also be divided for the graphics chip. So if the core processor is resting while the graphics chip to work hard, the graphics chip can take the rations to overclock the processor itself.
Most LGA1155 motherboards will use a new system to allow its owner to control its hardware at a basic level. The EFI, or Extensible Firmware Interface, is an update to the BIOS technology to which we’ve become
accustomed over the past 20 years or so. The new system still carries out the core functions of BIOS, such as regulating your PC, setting frequencies and managing the pre-boot data flow between an OS and
hardware, but it’s a more flexible framework than current BIOS programs. For example, there’s support for complex graphical menus and even animations, meaning that motherboard manufactures will have a
greater ability to differentiate between their motherboards. Gone are the low-resolution text menus and in their place are icons, drag and drop lists, and even mouse support. EFI also supports network connections, so in theory you should be able to update an EFI BIOS directly from the Internet. Whether or not we’d trust our motherboard to select and install the correct BIOS update all by itself over the Internet is another matter, however.
EFI technology has been around for many years but has struggled to take off due to the extra cost and time needed to develop EFIs and a lack of public demand. Intel has attempted to remedy this situation by
making EFI a requirement of LGA1155 motherboards, but from what we’re hearing, some motherboard manufacturers have proved reluctant to comply.
This is the line of Sandy Bridge processors for desktops available for retail segment. From the price range, look if Sandy Bridge will target the middle segment.
In its current state, Sandy Bridge-based processors are available with four cores (with and without Hyper-Threading) and two cores (dual-core models all have Hyper-Threading enabled). As you’ll see in the
benchmarks, these cores are, clock-for-clock, more powerful than what we saw from Nehalem. Still present are the 32 KB L1 instruction and data caches (along with 256 KB L2 cache per core), though Sandy Bridge
now incorporates what Intel calls a L0 instruction cache that holds up to 1500 decoded micro-ops. This feature has the dual effect of saving power and improving instruction throughput. If the fetch hardware
finds the instruction it needs in cache, it can shut down the decoders until they’re needed again. Intel also rebuilt Sandy Bridge’s branch prediction unit, improving its accuracy.
Sandy Bridge-based processors are the first to support Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX), a 256-bit instruction set extension to SSE (AMD will also support AVX in its upcoming Bulldozer processor architecture).
The impetus behind AVX comes from the high-performance computing world, where floating-point-intensive applications demand more horsepower than ever. To that end AVX’s impact on Sandy Bridge will very likely be limited. Intel does, however, expect that audio processing and video editing applications should eventually be
optimized to take advantage of AVX (along with the financial services analysis and engineering/manufacturing software that AVX is really designed to target). Unfortunately, there aren’t any real-world apps optimized for AVX that we can test as a gauge of the capability’s potential.
Naturally, a lot of implementation work went into enabling AVX, including a transition from a retirement register file to a physical register. This allows operands to be stored in the register file, rather than traveling with micro-ops through the out-of-order engine.
Intel used the power and die size savings enabled by the physical register to also significantly increase buffer sizes, more efficiently feeding its beefier floating-point engine.
As a consequence of increased integration, Intel had to address the ways bits and pieces of its processor were accessing the last-level cache (in Sandy Bridge, it’s the L3).
Back in the days of Bloomfield, Lynnfield, and Clarkdale, a four-core (and even six-core, in Westmere) ceiling meant that each physical core could have its own connection to that shared cache. The Xeon 7500-series processors were designed to be more scalable, though, and currently-shipping models feature as many as eight cores per CPU.
Built the same way, that’d be an exorbitant number of traces between each core and the last-level cache. So, Intel adopted a ring bus that, in those enterprise environments, allows the company to keep scaling
core count without the logistics getting out of control.
More Extreme Graphic
Intel onboard graphics chip has been often considered one eye. When compared to AMD or Nvidia graphics chip, its performance somewhat scattered far behind. But in Sandy Bridge, Intel, wanted to show that
they too can make the graphics chip. At least, Sandy Bridge ambition is to become the fastest in class onboard graphics chip, even has a performance comparable with standalone graphics card low-end. In
architecture, there is actually no significant change because the graphics chip is still composed of 12 execution processor. But because it was created by fabricating 32 nm, chip speed can also reach 1.35
GHz. Which should also be noted is this chip supports Shader Model 4.1 and DirectX 10.1. Does not support DirectX 11, but at least better than the graphics chip era Lynnfield (called Intel HD). This chip is also equipped with special components to perform decoding and encoding of popular video formats such as MPEG2, VC1, and AVC.
Well, Sandy Bridge has provided a separate unit for the decoding process so that it can do it yourself. Ease back, because the shader units of the processor idle, it can be used to handle jobs other videos such as the provision of securities. You’ll find two types of graphics chips in Sandy Bridge, the Intel HD Graphic 2000 and 3000.
Version 2000-which has the specifications under the series 3000-used by any processor, except the K series.
Actually, the division is rather confusing because it means the Intel HD 3000 is only used by users Intel Core Sandy Bridge version K. And as we stated above, buyers are likely overclockers K series in pursuit of the facilities that are not locked multiplier. Given overclockers is that they usually are willing to buy a standalone graphics card, then the entire excess Intel HD 3000 so it is not exploited. Instead, buyers were “ordinary” likely to use the onboard graphics chip would be willing to use only the Intel HD 2000 Graphic slower. Sandy Bridge based processor using socket LGA1155, unlike the generation that uses LGA1156 Lynnfield. As a result, you need to buy a new motherboard if you want to try the power of Sandy Bridge.
What is also worthy of pity, all the advantages of the above is present in different sockets. Sandy Bridge using the LGA1155 socket, different from that used in the processor socket LGA1156 Lynnfield.
Although the difference was just one pin, the two are not compatible, so we need a new motherboard.
There are two chipsets provided by Intel for this LGA1155, the Intel P67 and H67. Both are nearly the same specifications. The difference, H67 supports the onboard graphics system, while P67 for the system
with standalone graphics card.
Lots of motherboards supporting Sandy Bridge processors on the market, such as from Asus, MSI, Gigabyte, Biostar, and Asrock. Own P67 motherboard price of around Rp1, 1 to 2.2 million. While the price of Rp1 H67 between 0.3 to 1, 7 million Rupiah
To provide a complete picture of performance Core i7-2600K, we compare it with the Core i7-870 and AMD Phenom II X6 1100T. Core i7-870 is the best of the generation Lynnfield processors with speeds of 2.93 GHz.
While AMD Phenom II X6 1100T is the best AMD processor at this time, with 6-speed core and 3.3 GHz. The first thing we want to know is how much change in the Sandy Bridge microarchitecture effect on performance improvement. Therefore, we examined representatives Sandy Bridge (Core i7-2600K) and vice Lynnfield (Core i7-870) at the same speed, 2.8 GHz. That way, we can see the comparison of the performance of both the clock-per-clock.
The result was impressive. If listening to the table “Performance Leap”, you will find a spike can reach 24%. The increase occurred in various applications, ranging from single-thread application (dbPoweramp Music Converter), multi-thread (Sysmark 2007), until the games (Stalker). From here we can see, the changes in the Sandy Bridge microarchitecture provides significant performance improvements compared to Lynnfield. The table below compares the performance of the Core i7-2600K as vice Sandy Bridge with Core i7-870 as a
representative of Lynnfield. Excellence clock-per-clock becomes increasingly significant when we tested both of these processors in its original speed. Because the Core i7-2600K has a speed of 3.4 GHz, while the Core i7-870 2.93 GHz speed.
If you see a table Domination Sandy Bridge, we can see how significant the benefits of Core i7-2600K. The dominance of this processor more robust if we compare with AMD Phenom X6 1100T. Although AMD has 6 core
processor, Core i7-2600K stay ahead with a big difference.
Remarkably, with all its dominance, the power consumption of the Core i7-2600K still more economical. At idle and full load conditions, processor power consumption is still below the two processor comparison. This is one of the effects of a policy of “one silicon” used Sandy Bridge. With the performance and the frequency of
clock-speed is better, Core i7-2600K significantly superior to the difference; good when compared to the Core i7-870 and AMD Phenom X6 1100T.
Conclusions are not only relevant when comparing it with Intel’s HD, but also low-class graphics card entry, Nvidia GeForce 210. As shown in table Revolution Graphics, Intel HD3000 managed to record the results equivalent to the GeForce 210 that cost about 400 thousand.
Only the tests World in Conflict, Intel HD3000 must admit defeat. In another test, Intel’s classmate HD3000 successfully achieves results even better than the GeForce 210. Seeing the value of fps, Intel HD3000 can not be used to play top class games that we use in testing this time. But at least, the Intel graphics card HF3000 can replace low-entry from your shopping list.
Intel HD3000 completely different chip than the Intel HD. In fact, its performance can match the Nvidia GeForce 210 which is currently priced at 400 thousand numbers. Figures are inscribed fps is low, but keep in
mind we use today’s game at 1280×1024 resolution and High settings.
For gaming and a lower resolution, Intel HD3000 decent reliable.
By Sandy Bridge, Intel again proves the power of their processors. A series of tests we did show Core i7-2600K has amazing performance, at least for the processor in the class $ 300. He beat the Core i7-870 is
a previous winner, and the far left AMD Phenom II X6 1100T which is actually the best AMD processor at this time.
Performance is also shown remarkable HD3000 graphics chip. With equal ability of entry-level graphics card, Core i7-based system performs a complete 2600K. Our increasingly impressive, all these features are
presented with lower power consumption.
So great performance, economical power consumption. Sandy Bridge was the bridge to a different era.
Incoming Computer Tutorial Search:
- what is sandy bridge technology
- what is sandy bridge
- sandy bridge benefits
- sandybridge technology
- advantages of sandy bridge
- sandy Bridge vs Bloomfield
- intel sandy bridge processor comparison
- lynnfield vs sandy bridge
- sandy bridge vs lynnfield
- advantages of sandy bridge processors
Related Computer Tutorial:
- 13 Things You Need to Know About Sandy Bridge Technology Processor Intel Core-2 generation, which is widely known by the codename ‘Sandy Bridge’, a new architecture, performance is phenomenal, and overclockability are incredible (to reach 5.4Ghz with HSF cooler.) Therefore,...
- Intel Unveils 29 New Processors To Welcoming Sandy Bridge Techonolgy In This Early 2011 Intel used the first workday of 2011 to announce a fresh lineup of Core processors. The second generation of i3, i5 and i7 chips uses the Sandy Bridge architecture and...
- Three Prime Features Of The ASUS P67 Motherboard series To Coupe With Intel’s Sandy Bridge Technology Along with the launch of Intel’s Sandy Bridge, Intel also introduced a new processor socket and a new chipset designed specifically to fulfill it. Intel 67 series is the main...
- Asus Prepare Motherboard Lineup to Welcoming Sandy Bridge Technology Sandy Bridge is the latest generation of Intel who will be present at the beginning of 2011. Along with the presence of these processors will, Asus has prepared several motherboards...
- Gigabyte Presents Latest Five Series Motherboard 6 Outputs for Sandy Bridge Technology Gigabyte presents five new 6 Series motherboard that supports Intel’s latest Core LGA 1155, Sandy Bridge. Five Series 6 outputs include P67A-UD7 Gigabyte, P67A-UD5, P67A-UD4, P67A-UD3P, and H67A-UD3H. Gigabyte Motherboard...