Lots of error messages (errors) that are displayed when working with programming languages and applications. What type of error that may be found in a process? The following types of errors that exist in a
* Syntax error,
* Logical error
* Run-time error
Let’s take a closer look on each of them:
1. Syntax Error
Is an error caused by writing or improper command sequences. This error makes the party was asked to do something to be confused, so it can not perform the command.
Syntax is a computer programming uses a set of reserved words, or commands, as well as a set of symbols (like curly braces, semicolons, and mathematical operators such as plus and minus) to write programs that can be executed in a variety of ways. Essential to writing a functional computer program is syntax, this is the correct ordering of words and symbols to create the desired output or functionality.
When you incorrectly order words and symbols and try to compile or execute a program, the compiler, which takes your code and translates it into commands for the computer’s processor, will return a syntax error. This syntax order usually contains a line number, which will take you directly to the incorrect code, as well as an error message, which can be very general (“Syntax error at line 271″) or specific (“Syntax error: If without End If, line 271).
Syntax errors may take other forms, as well, depending on the specific error. Not all syntax errors will say “Syntax error”. Some examples of other types of error messages, taken from Visual Basic, include:
“Invalid use of ‘.’, ‘!’, or ‘()’”, “Wrong number of arguments used with function”, and “Object doesn’t support this property or method”.
Each of these error messages would appear with a line number, and looking at that specific line of code along with the error message will give you the information you need to correct your code.
When you are faced with a syntax error you can’t figure out, a good first stop is the documentation for the programming language you are using. Look up the specific words or commands used in the line triggering the error, and compare your code to the documentation. You should be able to find a description of the correct
syntax, which will help you pinpoint the syntax error.
2. Logical Error
Are the types of errors in logic. If found fault with this type, the process still continues, but does not run properly. Logic errors are not always very obvious and may be difficult to detect and to correct.
A logic error generally becomes apparent when the outcome of a transaction or a series of events is not what is expected. A simple example is when the program returns a wrong value for a simple count.
One hundred items are counted but the program reports that two hundred items are present. Logic errors become much more complex than this though. In an accounting framework, the result of a logic error may be
that the accounts do not balance.
It is generally logic errors that cause major computer disasters such as the wide scale delivery of incorrect billing or the overcharging or undercharging of clients for goods and services. Tracing a logic error can be very difficult. Most programming languages include some debugging tools. These can be used to trace exactly what happens at each instruction of the program. It allows you to view the data present both before and after that instruction. Debugging is most effectively carried out by collecting information, and rerunning the
program step by step until the approximate place of the error has been identified. Usually, a few key points in the program are identified.
At those points, execution of the program is stopped and data displayed. The program then executes the next few calculations. The data is again examined. If the data is still correct, the process continues. If the data is wrong, you have managed to get closer to the source of the error.
Differences between a Syntax Error and a Logical Error
An error can disrupt program flow, create nonsensical results or cause a program to terminate completely. Understanding the differences between syntax errors and logical ones helps the debugging process by making error location a simpler task. Both type of error is confined to programming, and real-life examples are easy to spot.
Logic and Syntax
Think of logic as yes-or-no questions and syntax as the parts of speech. Logic is a progression of conclusions based on simple statements. Complex logic patterns are created by combining a series of statements that define the desired result. Logic statements can be expressed mathematically, but syntax errors cannot. A syntax error is typically an action that is performed unnecessarily, in the wrong order, or completely out of context for the intended use. Syntax errors can be detected by analytical software, while a logical error
is difficult for the computer to discern.
Program Operation and Syntax Errors
In programming, a syntax error occurs when the program attempts to evaluate a statement and encounters a fuzzy command or impossible statement. One example of a syntax error would be an equation with
undefined variables, or a print command without print value. By thinking of syntax as the parts of speech you can understand the importance of proper organization of programming statements. Commands are actions that are performed on the subject of the statement, with additional descriptions and branching commands added to the structure in the form of operands such as AND, OR and WHILE among others, just as they are in speech.
Errors and Data Corruption
If a logical error is written into a program, it has the potential to corrupt data or even cause the program to stop running. Once an incorrect value has been established, the computer will continue to use that value because it is unable to recognize the error and passes it on to the program. This could lead to a corrupt database, faulty calculations or garbled images. Syntax errors can cause data corruption by introducing incorrect commands or premature termination of program execution.
3. Run-time Error
A problem that is encountered when a program is being executed.
Runtime errors can occur in software environments for many different reasons; for example, peripheral devices may not be turned on or instructions may be invalid. Such errors often occur with interpreted
extent ahead of time, but resources can always be missing in a computing environment, which can cause an error upon execution.
The runtime or run-time error message can be caused by:
1. Confliction with TSR or other running program
2. Software issue
3. Computer Virus
4. Memory issue
Before following the below recommendations for troubleshooting your runtime error if you’re getting a runtime error with a runtime error code and error message such as “Runtime error 75 path/file access error”, skip to the below runtime error listing for a listing of runtime error codes and additional information and causes for these errors.
Confliction with TSR or other running program
If you are encountering a runtime error message while in Windows or above ensure that the issue is not being caused by a third-party program or TSR by end tasking all open programs. Additional information about TSRs and how to end task a TSR can be found on document CHTSR.
If, after end tasking all TSRs, you continue to experience the same issue and are running Windows 95 or Windows 98, verify that no utility or program is being loaded in the autoexec.bat / config.sys that is causing your issue by temporally renaming the files. To do this, follow the below instructions.
1. Boot to a MS-DOS prompt.
2. Once at the MS-DOS prompt, type:
cd\ Once completed, reboot the computer. Software issue Add-on, plug-in, or other extra software Computer virus Memory issue Related Computer Tutorial:
If your issue persists it is possible that the program, utility or game causing the runtime error may have issues. Verify through the developer’s web site that all updates or patches that may be available have been downloaded and applied. If no patches or updates are available, uninstall and reinstall the program that is causing the issue. If you are having a runtime error in your operating system, reinstall the operating system.
Many runtime errors are also caused by other add-ons, plug-ins, or other extra software that has been installed onto the computer and is associated with the program generating the error. If you have any
extra software installed that is associated with the program generating the error make sure there are no available updates for the programs and try uninstalling each of them to verify they’re not the cause of your issue.
Because computer viruses are capable of tampering with the system settings / memory it is possible for a computer virus to generate a runtime error. If you are currently running a virus protection program on your computer ensure it has the latest updated patch or .dat file.
If you do not have a computer virus protection program it is recommended one be purchased or that a demo be temporarily downloaded to scan your computer hard disk drive for viruses.
Finally, if you have followed all of the above recommendations, it is possible that you may be encountering hardware / memory related issue.
We recommend that you first contact the developer of the program causing the issue for any possible solutions.
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Once completed, reboot the computer.
Add-on, plug-in, or other extra software
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